第 4 代專業級 MA/BA 系列係為 SÜSS MicroTecs 旗下半自動式光罩對準曝光機之多方位裝置平臺，並提供包羅萬象的運用潛力。此對準器適用於 150 及 200 mm 以下的基板尺寸。由於工具及選項與可設定的工藝參數為數眾多，因此可在研發與生產過程中極致靈活地變化運用。第 4 代專業級 MA/BA 的設計已臻成熟且擁有最現代的技術，實屬在開發未來科技時最理想的利器。是以在微電機系統、先進封裝、3D 整合製程及複合半導體等領域不遑多讓地立下新的標竿。
第 4 代 MA/BA 系列的自動化程度高，能達到傑出的製程結果。常量模式、自動控制曝光時間及自動對準等功能有助於使製程參數變得理想。此外，額外裝備優質光學系統（MO Exposure Optics）時，可使第 4 代 MA/BA 系列得到理想的曝光條件並從而取得最佳的結果。精心琢磨的機械裝置確保高度的對準精度。經由特殊的頂部及底部對準顯微鏡單位（TSA 及 BSA）構造，頂部對準顯微鏡（TSA）無需大幅度地移動，從而不會產生干擾性的震動。
諸如符合人機學的製程配方編輯器、資料記錄或設置可能選項、使用權等功能，再再便於操作人員進行作業，同時可失誤來源降至最少。此外，第 4 代 MA/BA 平臺運用優質數位顯微鏡及相機，不僅改良畫質且擴大螢幕上的視野（field of view），因而能顯著地簡化校準程序。
您可為第 4 代 MA/BA 系列選配符合能源效益的 LED 光源，除了降低運作及保養費用外，亦能提升對作業及環境的保護。不再須支出昂貴的特別廢棄物清潔費用處理汞氣燈。此機械提供各式安全預防措施，例如：紫外線照射防護、安全保險設備或防夾設施，該措施符合嚴格的安全協議。
第 4 代 MA/BA 系列的持有成本誘人，佔用空間雖小卻同時具有多種製程樣態，係為抉擇的關鍵。例如選擇採用符合能源效益的 LED 光源時，即可省下運作及保養的支出。第 4 代 MA/BA 平臺的結構十分地經久耐用，可輕易地近用操作元件，且可換下零件以及使用 LED 光源及 SUSS MicroTecs MO Exposure Optics 優質光學系統，故能降低保養的成本。此外，經由遠端控制存取機械即可以成本低廉的方式偵測並解決故障。
Where lithographic processes require the alignment of structures on only one side of the device wafer (e.g. RDL, microbumping and similar techniques), top-side alignment is used to align the fiducials on the mask with those of the wafer. Depending on substrate properties, this can be achieved either using stored position data for the wafer or through live image alignment, as in the DirectAligntm system invented at SUSS MicroTec.
Bottom-side Alignment (BSA)
Alignment of the structuring on the wafer back side with the structures on the front is required in processes involving applications such as MEMS, wafer-level packaging and 3D integration, where used for example to create vertical through silicon vias (TSVs) on interposers. Optical bottom side alignment is normally used for this type of alignment. An integrated camera system detects the mask structures and the structures on the wafer back side and aligns them with each other. The wafer position has to be determined and stored prior to loading, since the wafer afterwards conceals the mask target. This places specialized demands on the alignment system as a whole.
Features and Benefits
Multilayer wafer stacks are used in a number of structuring processes. By means of infrared (IR) illumination, the alignment marks that in the typical case are embedded between the layers can be identified and aligned.
Alignment can also be done using IR light based on such embedded marks. These require the use of materials that are transparent for IR light, such as undoped silicon, III-V semiconductors (e.g. GaAs) and adhesives for temporary bonding and debonding techniques. Specific cases should be tested to verify process feasibility.
In order to ensure availability of IR alignment to the greatest possible extent, the SUSS equipment can be optionally equipped with powerful IR light sources and high performance camera systems.
Enhancing Alignment Precision
When stringent demands are made of overlay accuracy, the auto-alignment functionality of the standard system can be considerably refined. DirectAlign®, the SUSS MicroTec enhanced functionality for structure detection software, uses live images instead of patterns from an image memory system. The technology is based on the industry standard PatMax and achieves outstanding results. Using DirectAlign® for top-side alignment on a SUSS mask aligner allows accuracy of 0.5 µm to be achieved.
The use of Enhanced Alignment is recommended for challenging alignment processes with easily confused structures or restricted fields of view.
A mask with a certain structure is aligned with the wafer in very close proximity (thus “proximity” lithography). During exposure, the shadow cast by the mask structure is transferred to the wafer. The resulting exposure quality depends on both the precision with which the mask and wafer are spaced apart and the optical system used for exposure.
Being fast and suited to flexible implementation, this method is regarded as the most cost-effective technique for producing microstructures down to 3 µm in size. With contact exposure, resolutions in the sub-micron range can be achieved. Typical areas of use include wafer-level chip-scale packaging, flip chip packaging, bumping, MEMS, LED and power devices. The systems are deployed in high-volume production as well as in industrial research.
The mask aligners supplied by SUSS MicroTec are based on proximity lithography.
Features & Benefits
The lower the exposure gap from mask to wafer, the higher the resolution. In soft contact mode the wafer is brought into contact with the mask and is fixed onto the chuck with vacuum.
In hard contact mode the wafer is brought in direct contact with the mask, while positive nitrogen pressure is used to press the substrate against the mask. In hard contact mode a resolution in the 1 micron range is possible.
The diffraction reducing exposure optics is designed to compensate diffraction effects in both contact and proximity lithography. Instead of using a plane wave as in other proximity lithography tools it provides an angular spectrum of planar light waves to reduce diffraction effects. The selection of a proper angular spectrum improves structure resolution in the resist.
MO Exposure Optics® is a unique illumination optics specifically designed for SUSS mask aligners. It is based on micro-lens plates instead of macroscopic lens assemblies. A simple plug & play changeover allows for a quick and easy changeover between different angular settings including the functionality of both classical SUSS HR and LGO illumination optics.
The telecentric illumination which is provided by the MO Exposure Optics improves light uniformity and leads to a larger process window. In consequence, this causes yield enhancements. MO Exposure Optics also decouples the exposure light from the lamp source thus small misalignments of the lamp do not affect the light uniformity. A decoupled light source saves setup and maintenance time and guarantees uniform illumination conditions during the full life-time of the lamp.
SUSS mask aligners are equipped with a WEC head system that allows reaching the parallelism between substrate and mask with a micrometric precision.
Auto Alignment is based on a motorized alignment stage. The COGNEX® based pattern recognition software automatically recognizes wafer target locations and controls the movement of the alignment stage. Coupled with SUSS MicroTec‘s DirectAlign® accuracies down to 0.25μm can be achieved. Auto Alignment enables highest repeatability of process results coupled with optimized throughput and minimum operator intervention.
Assisted Alignment represents the latest development for operator assisted, semi-automated alignment. During manual alignment the COGNEX® based pattern recognition software continuously measures the achieved accuracy and reports it to the operator.
With its sub pixel resolution the system supports highest alignment precision, prevents misalignment and maximizes yield.
Light Source of the Future
The new lamp house concept from SUSS MicroTec convinces with efficiency - UV-LED light sources reach many times the service life of conventional mercury vapor lamps. Moreover, they no longer need to warm-up and cool-down - the LED is only switched on during exposure. These factors significantly contribute to comparatively low energy consumption. And unlike mercury vapor lamps, they require no cumbersome hazardous-waste disposal.
The SUSS UV-LED lamp house features the latest in technology and thus meets the growing demand for environmental sustainability and energy efficiency.
The use of an LED lamp house significantly affects the operating costs of a Mask Aligner. The service life of an LED exceeds that of conventional lamps many times over, thereby lowering costs generated by changing lamps. Downtimes, acquisition of new lamps, adjustments and disposal of old material have become a thing of the past.
Guaranteed Process Flexibility
Compared to conventional mercury vapor lamps, LED light sources not only work more efficiently but are also much more flexible to use. The UV-LED lamp house generally covers the same spectral region as mercury vapor lamps. The difference is that the UV-LED can switch specific wave lengths on and off. This eliminates the need to optically filter the light outside of the lamp house. Wave lengths are regulated via programed formulas which fulfill specific process requirements without filter change or recalibration.
When interacting with SÜSS MicroTec's special optics MO Exposure Optics, the LED lamp house provides for maximum flexibility in process design.
Working with the LED lamp house is both safe and environmentally sound and is a major step up in health and occupational safety, as well as in environmental protection.
Simulation of lithographic processes
A simulation of lithographic processes makes the selection of optimal settings for process parameters possible without long-winded trial and error sessions. The multi-functional simulation software of lithographic processes “Lab”, which SUSS MicroTec distributes together with the supplier, GenISys, first and foremost allows the operator better process control. It offers all the required simulation functionality for an integrated design and process development, as well as verification and optimization. At the same time it covers all the process steps from illumination shaping and mask layout optimization up to photo resist processing. Additionally, modern 3D simulation functions improve the model visualizations.
The combination of MO Exposure Optics and the for SUSS optics custom-developed optical models in Lab facilitates customer-specific design optimization of the exposure filter plates, which in turn leads to an improvement in pattern fidelity.
Customer Specific Illumination Shaping and Mask Layouts
Combining optimization of mask layouts and the light source (source mask optimization), a procedure from projection lithography, makes it possible to reduce pattern inaccuracies due to illumination errors, processing artifacts and diffraction. A combined selection to match the exposure filter plates with the mask patterns (OPC = optical proximity correction) to customer specific requirements allows considerable expansion of the lithographic process functionality.
A simulation platform permits modeling of process parameters such as mask patterns and illumination parameters. This facilitates the exposure and mask patterns to be set for specific production situations with a reduced experimental effort, and reduces illumination and process errors.
Source mask optimization, together with SUSS MicroTecs customizable MO Exposure Optics® form an important contribution to improvement of process stability in mask aligner lithography.
Imprint lithography represents a cost-effective and highly reliable means of transferring three-dimensional nano- or micro-scale patterns onto a wide variety of substrates.
For the imprint, a stamp is brought into contact with a photosensitive material on the substrate. The photoresist fills out the three-dimensional pattern of the stamp and then solidifies under UV light. Parameters such as pattern topography, structure resolution and aspect ratio have a considerable influence on the process quality.
Thanks to its compatibility to well-established semiconductor processes, imprint lithography plays a key role in the development and production of DFB lasers, HB LEDs, wafer-level cameras and MEMS.
SUSS MicroTec solutions for imprint lithography are based on manual mask aligner platforms and support a wide range of materials and substrate with sizes up to 200 mm. Furthermore, SUSS platforms provide the capability of aligning and levelling stamps to substrates, as required by many imprint applications. Imprint equipment can also be retrofitted to SUSS mask aligners which are already in the field.
Depending on process requirements, SUSS MicroTec offers different imprint technologies on its mask aligners.
Micro- and Nano-Imprinting
For the transfer of patterns in the micro- to nanometer range, SUSS MicroTec offers SMILE (SUSS MicroTec imprint lithography equipment) technology.
There are two process variants, the use of which depends on the desired resolution.
The process allows very precise exposure of both micro- and nano-patterns, thereby offering a wide spectrum of potential applications and thus excellent process flexibility. SMILE is used for example in the production of MEMS and optical lenses for wafer-level-cameras.
Fusion bonding refers to spontaneous adhesion of two planar substrates. The process involves rinsing the polished discs and rendering them largely hydrophilic, then placing them in contact and tempering them at high temperatures. Plasma pretreatment allows the substrates to be bonded at room temperature.